It is often stated that the productivity of individual programmers varies by an order of magnitude, and there is significant research supporting the 10x claim. More subjectively, I suspect every working developer quickly realizes that the productivity of their peers varies tremendously. Having been at this for a while, I suspect there is no single factor or even small number of factors which cause this variance. Instead there are a whole collection of practices, all of which which add up to determine an individual developer's productivity.
To make things more interesting, many of the practices conflict in some way. We'll discuss three of them today.
1. Non-Blocking Operation
We don't just write code right up until the moment the product ships. Numerous steps depend on other people: code reviews, dependent modules or APIs, a test cycle, etc. When faced with a delay to wait for someone else, a developer can choose several possible responses.
blocking: while waiting for the response do something other than produce code for the project. Codelabs, reading related documentation, and browsing the programming reddit are all examples.
non-blocking: switch to a different coding task in another workspace.
Versatility and wide ranging knowledge is a definite positive (see point 2), and people who spend time satisfying intellectual curiosity grow into better developers. The blocking developer spends time pursuing those interests. We'll ignore the less positive variations on this.
The non-blocking programmer makes progress on a different development task. This can of course be taken too far: having a dozen workspaces and context switching to every one of them each day isn't productivity, its ADHD.
One could also label these as single-tasking versus multi-tasking, but that analogy implies more than I intend.
Sometimes developers maximize their own productivity by immediately interrupting the person they are waiting for, generally with the lead-in of "I just sent you email." This impacts point 3, the amount of time developers can spend in a productive zone, and is one of the conflicts between practices which impact overall productivity.
2. Versatile Techniques
Here I'm obliged to make reference to a craftsman's toolbox, with hammers and nails and planers and other woodworking tools I haven't the slightest idea what to do with. The essential point is valid without understanding the specifics of carpentry: a developer with wide ranging expertise can bring more creative solutions to bear on a problem. For example,
- Realizing that complex inputs would be better handled by a parser than an increasingly creaky collection of string processing and regex.
- Recognizing that a collection of data would be better represented as a graph, or processed using a declarative language
- Recall having read about just the right library to solve a specific problem.
Developers with a curiosity about their craft grow into better developers. This takes time away from the immediate work of pounding out code (point 1), but makes one more effective over the long run.
3. Typing Speed
This sounds too trivial to list, but the ability to type properly does make a difference. Steve Yegge dedicated an entire post to the topic. I concur with his assessment that the ability to touch type matters, far more than most developers think it should. I'll pay further homage to Yegge with a really long explanation as to why.
Developers work N hours per day, where N varies considerably, but the entire time is not spent writing code. We have interruptions, from meetings to questions from colleagues to physical necessities. The amount of time spent actually developing can be a small slice of one's day. More pressingly, we don't just sit down and immediately start pounding out program statements. There is a warm up period, to recall to mind the details of what is being worked on. Reviewing notes, re-reading code produced in the previous session, and so forth get one back into the mode of being productive. Interruptions which disrupt this productive mode have far greater impact than the few minutes it takes to answer the question.
Peopleware, the classic book on the productivity of programmers, refers to this focussed state as "flow" and devotes sections of the book to suggestions on how to maximize it. As the book was published in 1987, some of the suggestions now seem quaint like installing voice mail and allowing developers to turn off the telephone ringer. The essential point remains though: a block of time is far more useful than the same amount of time broken up by interruptions, and developers do well to maximize these blocks of time.
Once in the zone, thoughts race ahead to the next several steps in what needs to be done. Ability to type quickly and accurately maximizes the effectiveness of time spent in the flow of programming. Hunting and pecking means you only capture a fraction of what could have been done.
There are other factors relating to flow which can be optimized. For example one can block off chunks of time, or work at odd hours when interruptions are minimal. Yet control of the calendar isn't entirely up to the individual, while learning to type most definitely is.
The most effective, productive programmer I know talks very fast and types even faster. He has worked in a number of different problem spaces in his career, and stays current by reading Communications of the ACM and other publications. He handles interruptions well, getting back into the flow of programming very quickly. He also swears profusely, though I suspect that isn't really a productivity factor.
Other highly effective programmers have different habits. The most important thing is to be aware of how to maximize your own effectiveness, rather than look for a single solution or adopt someone else's techniques wholesale. Especially not the swearing.